key topic

Digitalization and Big Data

Digital technologies have rapidly been assimilated into our everyday lives, for instance via digital payment systems and the widespread diffusion of broadband infrastructure. But what effect is digitalization having on the world of work? How is it changing job design and influencing the nature of employment in different areas of the world? What role can and should different types of data (e.g. “Big Data,” Google search activity data, and molecular genetic data) play in decision making in labor markets and our future societies? Will robots really take all our jobs? Answering these questions and finding a solution to how we plug the inevitable skills gap between digital illiterates and digital natives will provide policymakers with many interesting challenges in the years to come.

  • Big Data in economics

    New sources of data create challenges that may require new skills

    Big Data refers to data sets of much larger size, higher frequency, and often more personalized information. Examples include data collected by smart sensors in homes or aggregation of tweets on Twitter. In small data sets, traditional econometric methods tend to outperform more complex techniques. In large data sets, however, machine learning methods shine. New analytic approaches are needed to make the most of Big Data in economics. Researchers and policymakers should thus pay close attention to recent developments in machine learning techniques if they want to fully take advantage of these new sources of Big Data.
    MoreLess
  • How digital payments can benefit entrepreneurs

    Digital payments can increase firms’ profits by allowing more efficient and cost-effective financial transactions

    Leora Klapper, November 2017
    Digital payment systems can conveniently and affordably connect entrepreneurs with banks, employees, suppliers, and new markets for their goods and services. These systems can accelerate business registration and payments for business licenses and permits by reducing travel time and expenses. Digital financial services can also improve access to savings accounts and loans. Electronic wage payments to workers can increase security and reduce the time and cost of paying employees. Yet, there are challenges as many entrepreneurs and employees lack bank accounts, digital devices, and reliable technology infrastructure.
    MoreLess
  • What is the role for molecular genetic data in public policy?

    There is potential value from incorporating genetic data in the design of effective public policy, but also some risks

    Both the availability and sheer volume of data sets containing individual molecular genetic information are growing at a rapid pace. Many argue that these data can facilitate the identification of genes underlying important socio-economic outcomes, such as educational attainment and fertility. Opponents often counter that the benefits are as yet unclear, and that the threat to individual privacy is a serious one. The initial exploration presented herein suggests that significant benefits to the understanding of socio-economic outcomes and the design of both social and education policy may be gained by effectively and safely utilizing genetic data.
    MoreLess
  • Multiple job-holding: Career pathway or dire straits?

    Moonlighting responds to economic needs, but can generate new skills and careers

    Multiple job-holding, or “moonlighting,” is an important form of atypical employment in most economies. New forms of work, driven by digitalization, may enable its future growth. However, many misconceptions exist, including the belief that multiple job-holders are low-skilled workers who moonlight primarily for financial reasons, or that the practice increases during economic downturns. Recent literature highlights the significant links between moonlighting and job mobility. Multiple job-holding allows for the development of workers’ skills and spurs entrepreneurship.
    MoreLess
  • The changing nature of jobs in Central and Eastern Europe

    Restructuring and upskilling prevents job polarization but may leave countries vulnerable to routine-biased technical change

    Piotr Lewandowski, April 2017
    Job polarization can pose serious problems for emerging economies that rely on worker reallocation from low-skilled to middle-skilled jobs to converge toward advanced economies. Evidence from Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries shows that structural change and education expansion can prevent polarization, as they enable a shift from manual to cognitive work and prevent the “hollowing out” of middle-skilled jobs. However, in CEE countries they have also led to a high routine cognitive content of jobs, which makes such jobs susceptible to automation and computerization in the future.
    MoreLess
  • How is new technology changing job design?

    Machines’ ability to perform cognitive, physical, and social tasks is accelerating, dramatically changing jobs and labor markets

    Michael Gibbs, March 2017
    The information technology revolution has had dramatic effects on jobs and the labor market. Many routine and manual tasks have been automated, replacing workers. By contrast, new technologies complement non-routine, cognitive, and social tasks, making work in such tasks more productive. These effects have polarized labor markets: While low-skill jobs have stagnated, there are fewer and lower paid jobs for middle-skill workers, and higher pay for high-skill workers, increasing wage inequality. Advances in artificial intelligence may be accelerating computers’ ability to perform cognitive tasks, heightening concerns about automation of even high-skill jobs.
    MoreLess
show more