Evidence-based policy making

IZA World of Labor is an online platform that provides policy analysts, journalists, academics and society generally with relevant and concise information on labor market issues. Based on the latest research, it provides current thinking on labor markets worldwide in a clear and accessible style. IZA World of Labor aims to support evidence-based policy making and increase awareness of labor market issues.

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The impact of aging on the scale of migration

Older people migrate less than young, yet with population aging, mobility of elderly and specialized workers may increase

Anzelika Zaiceva

Population aging will continue in the future, in both developed and developing countries. This may lead to lower migration, since the desire to migrate declines later in the life cycle. In addition, indirect labor demand effects may also reduce migration. However, migration of the elderly, return retirement migration, as well as mobility of certain specialist workers such as health and longer-term care providers, may increase. Also, in a family context, the emigration of children may have significant consequences for the elderly left behind, both in terms of poverty risk and health care.

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  • Female labor force participation and development

    Improving outcomes for women takes more than raising labor force participation—good jobs are important too

    Sher Verick, December 2018
    The relationship between female labor force participation and economic development is far more complex than often portrayed in both the academic literature and policy debates. Due to various economic and social factors, such as the pattern of growth, education attainment, and social norms, trends in female labor force participation do not conform consistently with the notion of a U-shaped relationship with GDP. Beyond participation rates, policymakers need to focus on improving women’s access to quality employment.
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  • Employment effects of minimum wages

    When minimum wages are introduced or raised, are there fewer jobs?

    David Neumark, December 2018
    The potential benefits of higher minimum wages come from the higher wages for affected workers, some of whom are in poor or low-income families. The potential downside is that a higher minimum wage may discourage firms from employing the low-wage, low-skill workers that minimum wages are intended to help. If minimum wages reduce employment of low-skill workers, then minimum wages are not a “free lunch” with which to help poor and low-income families, but instead pose a trade-off of benefits for some versus costs for others. Research findings are not unanimous, but especially for the US, evidence suggests that minimum wages reduce the jobs available to low-skill workers.
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  • School tracking and intergenerational social mobility

    Postponing school tracking can increase social mobility without significant adverse effects on educational achievement

    Tuomas Pekkarinen, December 2018
    The goal of school tracking (assigning students to different types of school by ability) is to increase educational efficiency by creating more homogeneous groups of students that are easier to teach. However, there are concerns that, if begun too early in the schooling process, tracking may improve educational attainment at the cost of reduced intergenerational social mobility. Recent empirical evidence finds no evidence of an efficiency–equality trade-off when tracking is postponed.
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  • Do higher levels of education and skills in an area benefit wider society?

    Education benefits individuals, but the societal benefits are likely even greater

    John V. Winters, December 2018
    Formal schooling increases earnings and provides other individual benefits. However, societal benefits of education may exceed individual benefits. Research finds that higher average education levels in an area are correlated with higher earnings, even for local residents with minimal education. Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) graduates appear to generate especially strong external effects, due to their role in stimulating innovation and economic growth. Several strategies to test for causality find human capital externalities do exist.
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  • Jan 15, 2019 - Jan 16, 2019

    Globalization: Contents and discontents

    Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    The World Bank Development Research Group based in Kuala Lumpur is organizing its third international conference, with the theme Globalization: Contents and Discontents. The conference aims to bring together policymakers and academics to discuss the consequences of various aspects of globalization including trade, migration, financial flows, cultural exchanges and the diffusion of ideas. 

  • Feb 12, 2019 - Feb 14, 2019

    AIRAANZ Conferences 2019 - Global Work, Quality Work

    Melbourne, Australia

    The 33rd annual conference of the Association of Industrial Relations Academics of Australia and New Zealand (AIRAANZ) will be hosted by the School of Management at RMIT University, Melbourne.

  • Apr 12, 2019 - Apr 13, 2019

    3rd IZA Workshop on Gender and Family Economics, Joint with Universidad Adolfo Ibañez

    Viña del Mar, Chile

    IZA and Universidad Adolfo Ibañez are organizing the 3rd IZA Annual Workshop on Gender and Family Economics. The workshop will create a stimulating environment that will enable participants to engage in discussion and receive valuable feedback on pressing issues in gender- and family-related research and policy. 

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