IZA World of Labor
Wayne B. Gray

Clark University, Boston Research Data Center, and NBER, USA

I’m happy to be contributing to the IZA World of Labor project. I consider it an excellent opportunity to reach an interested audience with a summary of the research being done in this area

IZA World of Labor role


Current position

John T. Croteau Professor of Economics, Clark University, USA; Executive Director, Boston Research Data Center, USA; Research Associate, National Bureau of Economic Research, USA

Research interest

Effectiveness and economic impact of government regulation of environmental and workplace hazards

Positions/functions as a policy advisor

Member, EPA’s Environmental Economics Advisory Committee (2011–date); Member, EPA’s Advisory Council on Clean Air Compliance Analysis (2004–2010)


PhD Economics, Harvard University, 1984

Selected publications

  • “Do EPA regulations affect labor demand? Evidence from the pulp and paper industry.” Journal of Environmental Economics and Management 68:1 (2014): 188–202 (with R. Shadbegian, C. Wang, and M. Meral).

  • “Environmental justice: Do poor and minority populations face more hazards?” In: Jefferson, P. N. (ed.) Oxford Handbook of the Economics of Poverty. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012 (with R. Shadbegian and A. Wolverton).

  • “The effectiveness of environmental monitoring and enforcement: A review of the empirical evidence.” Review of Environmental Economics and Policy 5:1 (2011): 3–24 (with J. Shimshack).

  • “Pollution abatement expenditures and plant-level productivity: A production function approach.” Ecological Economics 54:2-3 (2005): 196-208 (with R. Shadbegian).

  • "The cost of regulation: OSHA, EPA and the productivity slowdown." American Economic Review 77:5 (1987): 998–1006.