References for Public or private job placement services—Are private ones more effective?
Finn, D. Sub-Contracting in
Public Employment Services: Review of Research Findings and
Literature on Recent Trends and Business Models, 2011. Key reference: 
Blank, R. M. "When can public
policy makers rely on private markets? The effective provision
of social services" The Economic
Journal 110 (2000): 34–49. Key reference: 
Bartlett, W., Le
Grand, J. "The theory of
quasi-markets" In: Le
Grand, J., Bartlett, W. (eds). Quasi-Markets and
Social Policy. Basingstoke: Macmillan Press, 1993. Key reference: 
Krug, G., Stephan, G. "Private and public
placement services for hard-to-place unemployed: An evaluation
of a randomized field experiment" ILR Review 69 (2016): 471–500. Key reference: 
Rehwald, K., Rosholm, M., Svarer, M. Are Public or
Private Providers of Employment Services More Effective? Results
from a Randomized Experiment IZA Discussion
Paper No.9365, 2015. Key reference: 
Behaghel, L., Crépon, B., Gurgand, M. "Private and public
provision of counseling to job-seekers: Evidence from a large
controlled experiment" American Economic
Journal: Applied Economics 6 (2014): 142–174. Key reference: 
Bennmarker, H., Grönqvist, E., Öckert, B. "Effects of
contracting out employment services: Evidence from a randomized
experiment" Journal of Public
Economics 98 (2013): 68–84. Key reference: 
Laun, L., Thoursie, P. S. "Does privatisation
of vocational rehabilitation improve labour market
opportunities? Evidence from a field experiment in
Sweden" Journal of Health
Economics 34 (2014): 59–72. Key reference: 
Bernhard, S., Wolff, J. Contracting Out
Placement Services in Germany: Is Assignment to Private
Providers Effective for Needy Job-Seekers? IAB Discussion
Paper No.5/2008, 2008. Key reference: 
Cockx, B., Baert, S. Contracting Out
Mandatory Counselling and Training for Long-Term Unemployed.
Private For-Profit or Non-Profit, or Keep it Public? CESifo Working
Paper No.5587, 2015. Key reference: 
Homrighausen, P. Differential
Pricing and Private Provider Performance IAB Discussion
Paper No.25/2014, 2014. Key reference: 
Koning, P., Heinrich, C. J. "Cream-skimming,
parking and other intended and unintended effects of
high-powered, performance-based contracts" Journal of Policy
Analysis and Management 32 (2013): 461–483. Key reference: 
Koning, P., van de
Meerendonk, A. "The impact of
scoring weights on price and quality outcomes: An application to
the procurement of Welfare-to-Work contracts" European Economic
Review 71 (2013): 1–14. Key reference: 
- Finn, D. Sub-Contracting in Public Employment Services: Review of Research Findings and Literature on Recent Trends and Business Models, 2011.
- Barnow, B., Smith, J. "Performance management of US job training programs: Lessons from the Job Training Partnership Act" Public Finance and Management 4 (2004): 247–287.
- Bruttel, O. Contracting out and Governance Mechanisms in the Public Employment Service WZB Discussion Paper No.SPI 2005-109, 2005.
- Carcagno, G., Cecil, R., Ohls, J. "Using private employment agencies to place public assistance clients in jobs" Journal of Human Resources 17 (1982): 132–143.
- Courty, P., Marschke, G. "An empirical investigation of gaming responses to performance incentives" Journal of Labor Economics 22 (2004): 23–56.
- Heckman, J., Heinrich, C., Smith, J. "The performance of performance standards" Journal of Human Resources 38 (2002): 778–811.
- Heinrich, C. J., Choi, Y. "Performance-based contracting in social welfare programs" The American Review of Public Administration 37 (2007): 409–435.
- Hotz, V. J., Imbens, G., Mortimer, J. "Predicting the efficacy of future training programs using past experiences at other locations" Journal of Econometrics 125 (2005): 241–270.
- Koning, P. "Contracting welfare-to-work services" Economics Letters 114 (2012): 349–352.
- Lilley, P., Hartwich, O. M. Paying for Success: How to Make Contracting Out Work in Employment Services. London: Policy Echange, 2008.
- Mosley, H., Schütz, H., Breyer, N. Management by Objectives in European Public Employment Services WZB Discussion Paper No.FSI01-203, 2001.
- Struyven, L., Steurs, G. "Design and redesign of a quasi-market for the reintegration of jobseekers: Empirical evidence from Australia and the Netherlands" Journal of European Social Policy 15 (2005): 211–229.
- Sund, K. "Did the introduction of private contractors improve turnover to employment in the Swedish labor market?" Journal of Labor Research 36 (2015): 389–408.
- Winterhager, H. Private Job Placement Services: A microeconometric Evaluation for Germany ZEW Discussion Paper No.06-026, 2006.