Data

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Counting on count data models

Quantitative policy evaluation can benefit from a rich set of econometric methods for analyzing count data

10.15185/izawol.148 148 Winkelmann, R

by Rainer Winkelmann

Often, economic policies are directed toward outcomes that are measured as counts. Examples of economic variables that use a basic counting scale are number of children as an indicator of fertility, number of doctor visits as an indicator of health care demand, and number of days absent from work as an indicator of employee shirking. Several econometric methods are available for analyzing such data, including the Poisson and negative binomial models. They can provide useful insights that cannot be obtained from standard linear regression models. Estimation and interpretation are illustrated in two empirical examples.

The use of natural experiments in migration research

Data on rapid, unexpected refugee flows can credibly identify the impact of migration on native workers’ labor market outcomes

10.15185/izawol.191 191 Tumen, S

by Semih Tumen

Estimating the causal effect of immigration on the labor market outcomes of native workers has been a major concern in the literature. Because immigrants decide whether and where to migrate, immigrant populations generally consist of individuals with characteristics that differ from those of a randomly selected sample. One solution is to focus on events such as civil wars and natural catastrophes that generate rapid and unexpected flows of refugees into a country unrelated to their personal characteristics, location, and employment preferences. These “natural experiments” yield estimates that find small negative effects on native workers’ employment but not on wages.

Google search activity data and breaking trends

Google search activity data are an unconventional survey full of unbiased, revealed answers in need of the right question

10.15185/izawol.206 206 Askitas, N

by Nikolaos Askitas

Using Google search activity data can help detect, in real time and at high frequency, a wide spectrum of breaking socio-economic trends around the world. This wealth of data is the result of an ongoing and ever more pervasive digitization of information. Search activity data stand in contrast to more traditional economic measurement approaches, which are still tailored to an earlier era of scarce computing power. Search activity data can be used for more timely, informed, and effective policy making for the benefit of society, particularly in times of crisis. Indeed, having such data shifts the relation between theory and the data to support it.

The challenges of linking survey and administrative data

Combining survey and administrative data is growing in popularity, even though data access is still highly restricted

10.15185/izawol.214 214 Künn, S

by Steffen Künn

Using administrative records data and survey data to enhance each other offers huge potential for scientific and policy-related research. Two recent changes have expanded the potential for creating such linked data: the improved availability of data sources and progress in data-matching technology. These developments are reflected, among other ways, in the growing number of academic papers in labor economics that use linked survey and administrative data. While the number of studies using linked data is still small, the trend is clearly upward. Slowing the growth, however, are concerns about data security and privacy, which impede data access.

Can “happiness data” help evaluate economic policies?

“Happiness data” may help assess the welfare effects of a new labor market policy, like a change in benefit generosity

10.15185/izawol.226 226 MacCulloch, R

by Robert MacCulloch

Imagine a government confronted with a controversial policy question, like whether it should cut the level of unemployment benefits. Will social welfare rise as a result? Will some groups be winners and other groups be losers? Will the welfare gap between the employed and unemployed increase? “Happiness data” offer a new way to make these kinds of evaluations. These data allow us to track the well-being of the whole population, and also sub-groups like the employed and unemployed people, and correlate the results with relevant policy changes.

Performance measures and worker productivity

Choosing the right performance measures can inform and improve decision-making in policy and management

10.15185/izawol.260 260 Sauermann, J

by Jan Sauermann

Measuring workers’ productivity is important for public policy and private-sector decision-making. Due to a lack of reliable methods to determine workers’ productivity, firms often use specific performance measures, such as how different incentives affect employees’ behavior. The public sector also uses these measures to monitor and evaluate personnel, such as teachers. To select the right performance measures, and as a result design better employment contracts and improve productivity, policymakers and managers need to understand the advantages and disadvantages of the available metrics.

Why do we need longitudinal survey data?

Knowing people’s history helps in understanding their present state and where they are heading

10.15185/izawol.308 308 Joshi, H

by Heather Joshi

Information from longitudinal surveys transforms snapshots of a given moment into something with a time dimension. It illuminates patterns of events within an individual’s life and records mobility and immobility between older and younger generations. It can track the different pathways of men and women and people of diverse socio-economic background through the life course. It can join up data on aspects of a person’s life, health, education, family, and employment and show how these domains affect one another. It is ideal for bridging the different silos of policies that affect people’s lives.

Measuring entrepreneurship: Type, motivation, and growth

Effective measurement can help policymakers harness a wide variety of gains from entrepreneurship

10.15185/izawol.327 327 Desai, S

by Sameeksha Desai

Policymakers rely on entrepreneurs to create jobs, provide incomes, innovate, pay taxes to support public revenues, create competition in industries, and much more. Due to its highly heterogeneous nature, the choice of entrepreneurship measures is critically important, impacting the diagnosis, analysis, projection, and understanding of potential and existing policy. Some key aspects to measure include the how (self-employment, new firm formation), why (necessity, opportunity), and what (growth). As such, gaining better insight into the challenges of measuring entrepreneurship is a necessary and productive investment for policymakers.