IZA World of Labor provides decision-makers with relevant and succinct information based on sound empirical evidence to help in formulating good policies and best practices. It provides expert know-how in an innovative structure, and a clear and accessible style.
Program evaluation provides an overview of the effectiveness of a variety of policies that have been tested in diverse settings across various countries. The knowledge provided suggests whether or not the individual and the economy fair better without the measures studied.
Behavioral economics analyzes the emotional and cognitive factors that influence the decisions of actors. Personnel economics analyzes the internal organizational strategy of the firm and the human resource management practices chosen to pursue that strategy.
Mobility is important for the functioning of markets and society. Migration deals with issues of national and international mobility, such as demand and supply, and what migration means for natives and migrants and for sending and receiving countries.
Institutions have important consequences for the performance of households, companies, governments and entire markets; they determine the welfare of nations. Contributions explore the underlying mechanisms and the politico-economic determinants of such structures.
The transformation of economic systems from plan to market in transition and emerging economies has significant consequences not only for labor markets in those countries. Their lessons can also guide the development of institutions and labor reform policies in other countries.
Low-income countries differ from higher-income countries in that they have large informal sectors, greater prevalence of self-employment and subsistence agriculture, low female labor participation rates and poor labor market conditions. As labor is most often the only asset of someone in poverty, policies that are not associated with job creation may fail to reduce poverty. Hence, development deals with the potential of labor economics to address those challenges.
Optimal environmental policy aims at equalizing benefits and costs of improving environmental quality. While the benefits generally accrue in the form of increased health, worker productivity, quality of life, and amenity values, the costs of environmental regulations are mostly borne through impacts on industrial activity and labor market outcomes. Successful policy development requires information on the connection between environmental regulations, labor markets, and industrial activity.
Education shows great resilience to shocks—labor demand for highly skilled workers has remained high in all kinds of economic conditions. Public policy for education and human capital include increasing the economic and social returns on education, fostering greater educational attainment, encouraging social and economic mobility, and providing vocational education, training, and lifelong learning.
Population characteristics strongly predict labor market success. One of the biggest economic changes has been the rise of women in the labor market. The upcoming demographic imbalances suggest substantial adjustment processes on labor markets around the globe. Empirical evidence relating social, cultural, and biological processes to worker well-being is also provided.
Data are the foundation for evidence-based research. Therefore, the value of different types of data collection is made transparent. Important statistical and econometric methods are explained that provide instruments to condense information and to identify and quantify correlation or causality. Data sources used in our articles are cited according to the IZA World of Labor data citation convention.
The main goal of secondary school education in
developed countries is to prepare students for higher education and the
labor market. That demands high investments in study duration and
specialized fields to meet rising skill requirements. However, these demands
for more education are in opposition to calls for early entry to the labor
market, to lengthen working lives to meet the rising costs associated with
an aging population and to enable the intergenerational transfer of skills.
One way to lengthen working lives is to shorten the duration of secondary
school, an option recently implemented in Canada and Germany. The empirical
evidence shows mixed effects.
Female labor force participation is mainly
driven by the value of women’s market wages versus the value of their
non-market time. Labor force participation by women varies considerably
across countries. To understand this international variation, one must
further consider differences across countries in institutions, non-economic
factors such as cultural norms, and public policies. Such differences
provide important insights into what actions countries might take to further
increase women’s participation in the labor market.
Global value chains (GVCs) describe the
cross-national activities and inputs required to bring a product or service
to the market. While they can boost exports and productivity, the resulting
labor market impacts vary significantly across developing countries. Some
experience large-scale manufacturing employment, while others see a shift in
demand for labor from manufacturing to services, and from lower to higher
skills. Several factors shape the way in which a country’s labor market will
be impacted by GVC integration, including the type of sector, lead firms’
strategies, domestic skills base, and the institutional environment.