IZA World of Labor provides decision-makers with relevant and succinct information based on sound empirical evidence to help in formulating good policies and best practices. It provides expert know-how in an innovative structure, and a clear and accessible style.
Program evaluation provides an overview of the effectiveness of a variety of policies that have been tested in diverse settings across various countries. The knowledge provided suggests whether or not the individual and the economy fair better without the measures studied.
Behavioral economics analyzes the emotional and cognitive factors that influence the decisions of actors. Personnel economics analyzes the internal organizational strategy of the firm and the human resource management practices chosen to pursue that strategy.
Mobility is important for the functioning of markets and society. Migration deals with issues of national and international mobility, such as demand and supply, and what migration means for natives and migrants and for sending and receiving countries.
Institutions have important consequences for the performance of households, companies, governments and entire markets; they determine the welfare of nations. Contributions explore the underlying mechanisms and the politico-economic determinants of such structures.
The transformation of economic systems from plan to market in transition and emerging economies has significant consequences not only for labor markets in those countries. Their lessons can also guide the development of institutions and labor reform policies in other countries.
Low-income countries differ from higher-income countries in that they have large informal sectors, greater prevalence of self-employment and subsistence agriculture, low female labor participation rates and poor labor market conditions. As labor is most often the only asset of someone in poverty, policies that are not associated with job creation may fail to reduce poverty. Hence, development deals with the potential of labor economics to address those challenges.
Optimal environmental policy aims at equalizing benefits and costs of improving environmental quality. While the benefits generally accrue in the form of increased health, worker productivity, quality of life, and amenity values, the costs of environmental regulations are mostly borne through impacts on industrial activity and labor market outcomes. Successful policy development requires information on the connection between environmental regulations, labor markets, and industrial activity.
Education shows great resilience to shocks—labor demand for highly skilled workers has remained high in all kinds of economic conditions. Public policy for education and human capital include increasing the economic and social returns on education, fostering greater educational attainment, encouraging social and economic mobility, and providing vocational education, training, and lifelong learning.
Population characteristics strongly predict labor market success. One of the biggest economic changes has been the rise of women in the labor market. The upcoming demographic imbalances suggest substantial adjustment processes on labor markets around the globe. Empirical evidence relating social, cultural, and biological processes to worker well-being is also provided.
Data are the foundation for evidence-based research. Therefore, the value of different types of data collection is made transparent. Important statistical and econometric methods are explained that provide instruments to condense information and to identify and quantify correlation or causality. Data sources used in our articles are cited according to the IZA World of Labor data citation convention.
A key way for the world’s poor—nearly half of
humanity—to escape poverty is to earn more for their labor. Most of the
world’s poor people are self-employed, but because there are few
opportunities in most developing countries for them to earn enough to escape
poverty, they are working hard but working poor. Two key policy planks in
the fight against poverty should be: raising the returns to self-employment
and creating more opportunities to move from self-employment into higher
paying wage employment.
Income inequality has been rising in many
countries. Is this bad? One way to decide is to look at the change in
incomes across generations (intergenerational mobility) and, more generally,
at the extent to which income differences among individuals are traceable to
their social origins. Inequalities that reflect factors largely out of one’s
control—such as local schools and communities—require attention in order to
reduce income inequality. Evidence shows a negative association between
income inequality and intergenerational mobility. The debate on whether
community effects exert additional effects is still open.
For the first time since the Second World War,
the total number of refugees amounts to more than 50 million people. Only a
minority of these refugees seek asylum, and even fewer resettle in developed
countries. At the same time, politicians, the media, and the public are
worried about a lack of economic integration. Refugees start at a lower
employment and income level, but subsequently “catch up” to the level of
family unification migrants. However, both refugees and family migrants do
not “catch up” to the economic integration levels of labor migrants. A
faster integration process would significantly benefit refugees and their
new host countries.