IZA World of Labor provides decision-makers with relevant and succinct information based on sound empirical evidence to help in formulating good policies and best practices. It provides expert know-how in an innovative structure, and a clear and accessible style.
Program evaluation provides an overview of the effectiveness of a variety of policies that have been tested in diverse settings across various countries. The knowledge provided suggests whether or not the individual and the economy fair better without the measures studied.
Behavioral economics analyzes the emotional and cognitive factors that influence the decisions of actors. Personnel economics analyzes the internal organizational strategy of the firm and the human resource management practices chosen to pursue that strategy.
Mobility is important for the functioning of markets and society. Migration deals with issues of national and international mobility, such as demand and supply, and what migration means for natives and migrants and for sending and receiving countries.
Institutions have important consequences for the performance of households, companies, governments and entire markets; they determine the welfare of nations. Contributions explore the underlying mechanisms and the politico-economic determinants of such structures.
The transformation of economic systems from plan to market in transition and emerging economies has significant consequences not only for labor markets in those countries. Their lessons can also guide the development of institutions and labor reform policies in other countries.
Low-income countries differ from higher-income countries in that they have large informal sectors, greater prevalence of self-employment and subsistence agriculture, low female labor participation rates and poor labor market conditions. As labor is most often the only asset of someone in poverty, policies that are not associated with job creation may fail to reduce poverty. Hence, development deals with the potential of labor economics to address those challenges.
Optimal environmental policy aims at equalizing benefits and costs of improving environmental quality. While the benefits generally accrue in the form of increased health, worker productivity, quality of life, and amenity values, the costs of environmental regulations are mostly borne through impacts on industrial activity and labor market outcomes. Successful policy development requires information on the connection between environmental regulations, labor markets, and industrial activity.
Education shows great resilience to shocks—labor demand for highly skilled workers has remained high in all kinds of economic conditions. Public policy for education and human capital include increasing the economic and social returns on education, fostering greater educational attainment, encouraging social and economic mobility, and providing vocational education, training, and lifelong learning.
Population characteristics strongly predict labor market success. One of the biggest economic changes has been the rise of women in the labor market. The upcoming demographic imbalances suggest substantial adjustment processes on labor markets around the globe. Empirical evidence relating social, cultural, and biological processes to worker well-being is also provided.
Data are the foundation for evidence-based research. Therefore, the value of different types of data collection is made transparent. Important statistical and econometric methods are explained that provide instruments to condense information and to identify and quantify correlation or causality. Data sources used in our articles are cited according to the IZA World of Labor data citation convention.
Many firms offer employees a remuneration
package that links pay to performance as a means of motivation. It also
improves efficiency and reduces turnover and absenteeism. The effects on
productivity depend on the type of scheme employed (individual or group
performance) and its design (commissions, piece-rate or sharing schemes).
Individual incentives demonstrate the largest effect, while group or team
incentives are smaller in magnitude. The case for government intervention
through tax breaks and other financial incentives is highly debated due to
differences across firms and the potential for economic inefficiencies.
Female-led ventures that are market-expanding,
export-oriented, and innovative contribute substantially to local and
national economic development, as well as to the female entrepreneur’s
economic welfare. Female-led ventures also serve as models that can
encourage other high-potential female entrepreneurs. The supply of
high-potential entrepreneurial ventures is driven by individuals’
entrepreneurial attitudes and institutional factors associated with a
country’s conditions for entrepreneurial expansion. A systematic assessment
of those factors can show policymakers the strengths and weaknesses of the
environment for high-potential female entrepreneurship.
A pieceworker receives a fixed rate for each
unit (“piece”) produced or action performed. In part, the rate reflects a
cost of monitoring output. A timeworker receives a fixed wage rate per hour
that, in the short term, does not vary with output performance. From the
18th century up to the last third of the 20th century these were the two
dominant payment methods in the manufacturing and production industries.
Yet, today the incidence of piecework in advanced economies is very small,
having lost considerable ground to time rates and to other forms of
incentive pay. What caused this transformation, and has the movement away
from piecework gone too far?