IZA World of Labor provides decision-makers with relevant and succinct information based on sound empirical evidence to help in formulating good policies and best practices. It provides expert know-how in an innovative structure, and a clear and accessible style.
Program evaluation provides an overview of the effectiveness of a variety of policies that have been tested in diverse settings across various countries. The knowledge provided suggests whether or not the individual and the economy fair better without the measures studied.
Behavioral economics analyzes the emotional and cognitive factors that influence the decisions of actors. Personnel economics analyzes the internal organizational strategy of the firm and the human resource management practices chosen to pursue that strategy.
Mobility is important for the functioning of markets and society. Migration deals with issues of national and international mobility, such as demand and supply, and what migration means for natives and migrants and for sending and receiving countries.
Institutions have important consequences for the performance of households, companies, governments and entire markets; they determine the welfare of nations. Contributions explore the underlying mechanisms and the politico-economic determinants of such structures.
The transformation of economic systems from plan to market in transition and emerging economies has significant consequences not only for labor markets in those countries. Their lessons can also guide the development of institutions and labor reform policies in other countries.
Low-income countries differ from higher-income countries in that they have large informal sectors, greater prevalence of self-employment and subsistence agriculture, low female labor participation rates and poor labor market conditions. As labor is most often the only asset of someone in poverty, policies that are not associated with job creation may fail to reduce poverty. Hence, development deals with the potential of labor economics to address those challenges.
Optimal environmental policy aims at equalizing benefits and costs of improving environmental quality. While the benefits generally accrue in the form of increased health, worker productivity, quality of life, and amenity values, the costs of environmental regulations are mostly borne through impacts on industrial activity and labor market outcomes. Successful policy development requires information on the connection between environmental regulations, labor markets, and industrial activity.
Education shows great resilience to shocks—labor demand for highly skilled workers has remained high in all kinds of economic conditions. Public policy for education and human capital include increasing the economic and social returns on education, fostering greater educational attainment, encouraging social and economic mobility, and providing vocational education, training, and lifelong learning.
Population characteristics strongly predict labor market success. One of the biggest economic changes has been the rise of women in the labor market. The upcoming demographic imbalances suggest substantial adjustment processes on labor markets around the globe. Empirical evidence relating social, cultural, and biological processes to worker well-being is also provided.
Data are the foundation for evidence-based research. Therefore, the value of different types of data collection is made transparent. Important statistical and econometric methods are explained that provide instruments to condense information and to identify and quantify correlation or causality. Data sources used in our articles are cited according to the IZA World of Labor data citation convention.
A non-trivial portion of traffic fatalities
involve alcohol or illicit drugs. But does the use of alcohol and illegal
substances—which is linked to depression, suicide, and criminal
activity—also reduce academic performance? Recent studies suggest that
drinking alcohol has a negative, if modest, effect on grades, and although
students who use illegal substances are more likely to drop out of school
than those who do not, this may reflect the influence of other,
difficult-to- measure factors at the individual level, such as
Apprenticeships are the most common form of non-academic
training in sub-Saharan Africa. Most apprenticeships are provided by the private sector, for a
fee, and lead to self-employment rather than to wage jobs. Where the effects have been
measured, they show that earnings are not higher, on average, for people who did an
apprenticeship than for those who did not. This presents a conundrum. Why would people pay for
apprenticeship training that does not benefit them? Research reveals that apprenticeships do
benefit some people more than others. Especially striking is that the returns to
apprenticeships can fall with the level of education.
Childhood obesity has been rising steadily in
most parts of the world. Popular speculation attributes some of that
increase to rising maternal employment. Employed mothers spend less time at
home and thus less time with their children, whose diets and physical
activity may suffer. Also, children of working mothers may spend more time
in the care of others, whose childcare quality may vary substantially. While
a majority of US studies support this hypothesis and have clear policy
implications, recent studies in other countries are less conclusive, largely
because institutional arrangements differ but also because methodologies