key topic

Migrant–native issues

Migration's impact on the native labor force is a major concern among politicians, policymakers, and the public, and is a key factor in shaping migration policy. Research shows that immigration and emigration have positive and negative implications for the native workforce, and that these often differ sharply from public perceptions and media coverage.

  • The effect of emigration on home-country political institutions

    Migrants can have positive political effects on their home countries’ institutions

    Elisabetta Lodigiani, November 2016
    The number of immigrants from developing countries living in richer, more developed countries has increased substantially during the last decades. At the same time, the quality of institutions in developing countries has also improved. The data thus suggest a close positive correlation between average emigration rates and institutional quality. Recent empirical literature investigates whether international migration can be an important factor for institutional development. Overall, the findings indicate that emigration to institutionally developed countries induces a positive effect on home-country institutions.
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  • Migration and female genital mutilation

    Can migrants help change the social norm?

    Sandrine Mesplé-Somps, August 2016
    More than 100 million women and girls in the world have had their genitals cut for cultural, religious, or other non-medical reasons. Even though international organizations condemn female genital mutilation (FGM), or cutting, as a violation of human rights, and most nations have banned it, it remains prevalent in many African countries, and is slow to decline. This persistence raises questions about the effectiveness of international and national laws prohibiting the practice as well as the potential role of returning migrants in changing embedded cultural norms. Does migration change migrants’ opinions and attitudes to this custom? If so, do they transfer the new norms to their origin countries?
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  • Who benefits from return migration to developing countries?

    Despite returnees being a potential resource, not all developing countries benefit from their return

    Jackline Wahba, February 2015
    Return migration can have multiple benefits. It allows migrants who have accumulated savings abroad to ease credit constraints at home and set up a business. Also, emigrants from developing countries who have invested in their human capital may earn higher wages when they return. However, whether the home country benefits from return migrants depends on the migrant’s success in accumulating savings and human capital and on the home country’s ability to make use of returnees’ skills and investment. To benefit from returnees, home countries need policies that encourage returnees’ investment and labor market reintegration.
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  • Naturalization and citizenship: Who benefits?

    Liberalizing access to citizenship has labor market benefits for immigrants and can improve their assimilation

    Christina Gathmann, February 2015
    Politicians, the media, and the public express concern that many immigrants fail to integrate economically. Research shows that the option to naturalize has considerable economic benefits for eligible immigrants, even in countries with a tradition of restrictive policies. First-generation immigrants who are naturalized have higher earnings and more stable jobs. The gains from citizenship are particularly apparent among immigrants from poorer countries. A key policy question is whether naturalization labor market success or is taken up by those immigrants who would anyway be most likely to succeed in the labor market.
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  • Do immigrants improve the health of native workers?

    Immigration crowds native workers out of risky jobs and into less strenuous work, with consequent benefits to their health

    Osea Giuntella, November 2014
    Public debate on immigration focuses on its effects on wages and employment, yet the discussion typically fails to consider the effects of immigration on working conditions that affect workers’ health. There is growing evidence that immigrants are more likely than natives to work in risky jobs, as they are more inclined to take on physically intensive tasks. Recent studies show that as immigration rises, native workers are pushed into less demanding jobs. Such market adjustments have positive impacts on the health of the native workers.
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  • Do migrants take the jobs of native workers?

    Migrants rarely take native workers’ jobs, and they boost employment effects in the long term

    Amelie F. Constant, May 2014
    Neither public opinion nor evidence-based research supports the claim of some politicians and the media that immigrants take the jobs of native-born workers. Public opinion polls in six migrant-destination countries after the 2008–2009 recession show that most people believe that immigrants fill job vacancies and many believe that they create jobs and do not take jobs from native workers. This view is corroborated by evidence-based research showing that immigrants—of all skill levels—do not significantly affect native employment in the short term and boost employment in the long term.
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